Guide to Buy PC Power Supplies in TORY Stage Light

2021-11-16
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PC Power Supplies from Guangzhou Tory Light Co., Ltd. is created to satisfy the diverse needs of global customers. It has various kinds of design styles and specification. We have established a strict raw materials selection process to make sure that all raw materials used meet the application needs and international standards. It performs well and has a long service life. Customers are sure to get lots of economic benefits out of the product.The TORY stage light branded products in our company are warmly welcome. Statistics show that nearly 70% of the visitors to our website will click specific product pages under the brand. The quantity of order and sales volume are both evidence. In China and foreign countries, they enjoy high reputation. Many producers may set them as examples during manufacturing. They are strongly recommended by our distributors in their districts. At TORY LIGHT, in addition to standardized services, we can also provide custom-made PC Power Supplies to customers' specific needs and requirements and we always try to accommodate their schedules and time plans.
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Seven Precautions for DC Module Power Supply Selection
Friends with a certain power design foundation must be familiar with DC module power supply, and even be able to skillfully use DC module power supply in the circuit. But how to choose a reasonable and convenient DC module power supply? This paper will analyze the selection of module power supply from the perspective of development and design, so as to help circuit designers quickly understand it and serve as a reference.Selection of DC / DC module power supplyIn addition to the most basic voltage conversion function, the following aspects need to be considered when selecting DC / DC module power supply:Rated powerIt is generally recommended that the actual power used should be 30 80% of the rated power of the module power supply (the specific proportion is also related to other factors, which will be mentioned later). Within this power range, the performance of the module power supply is relatively full, stable and reliable. Too light load causes waste of resources, and too heavy load is unfavorable to temperature rise and reliability. All module power supplies have certain overload capacity, but it is still not recommended to work under overload conditions for a long time. After all, this is a short-term emergency plan.Packaging formThere are various packaging forms of module power supply, including those in line with international standards and non-standard ones. For the products of the same company, the products with the same power have different packaging, and the same packaging has different power. So how to choose the packaging form? There are three main aspects: 1. The volume should be as small as possible under certain power conditions, so as to give more space and more functions to other parts of the system. 2. Try to choose products packaged in accordance with international standards, because they have good compatibility and are not limited to one or two suppliers. 3. It shall be scalable to facilitate system expansion and upgrading. Select a package. Due to the increased requirements of the system for power supply power due to function upgrading, the power module package remains unchanged, and the system circuit board design does not need to be changed, which greatly simplifies the product upgrading and saves time. Take the high-power module power supply products of dinglixin company as an example: all comply with international standards, are half brick and full brick packaging widely used in the industry, are fully compatible with famous brands such as VICOR and lambda, and the power range of half brick products covers 50 200W and full brick products covers 100 300W.Temperature range and derating useGenerally, the module power supply of manufacturers has several temperature range products to choose from: commercial grade, industrial grade, military grade, etc. when selecting the module power supply, we must consider the actual working temperature range, because the price varies greatly with different temperature grades, materials and manufacturing processes, and improper selection will affect the use, so we have to consider it carefully. There are two options: one is to select according to the use power and packaging form. If the actual use power is close to the rated power under the condition of a certain volume (packaging form), the nominal temperature range of the module must strictly meet the actual needs or even have a slight margin. Second, it is selected according to the temperature range. What if products with a smaller temperature range are selected due to cost considerations, but sometimes the temperature approaches the limit?Derating use. That is, select products with greater power or packaging, so that the "big horse pulls the small car", and the temperature rise should be lower, which can alleviate this contradiction to a certain extent. The derating ratio varies with different power levels, generally 3 10W / ℃ above 50W. In short, either choose products with a wide temperature range, make more full use of power and smaller packaging, but the price is higher. Or choose products with general temperature range, lower price, larger power margin and packaging form. Compromise should be considered.working frequency Generally speaking, the higher the working frequency, the smaller the output ripple noise and the better the dynamic response of the power supply. However, the higher the requirements for components, especially magnetic materials, and the cost will increase. Therefore, the switching frequency of domestic module power products is mostly below 300kHz, and even some are only about 100kHz, which is difficult to meet the requirements of dynamic response under variable load conditions, Therefore, products with high switching frequency should be considered for applications with high requirements. On the other hand, when the switching frequency of the module power supply is close to the working frequency of the signal, it is easy to cause beat oscillation, which should also be considered when selecting. The switching frequency of dinglixin module is up to 500KHz and has excellent output characteristics.Isolation voltageIn general, the requirements for the isolation voltage of the module power supply are not very high, but a higher isolation voltage can ensure that the module power supply has smaller leakage current, higher safety and reliability, and better EMC characteristics. Therefore, the current isolation voltage level in the industry is more than 1500vdc.Fault protection functionRelevant statistics show that the main reason for the failure of module power supply within the expected effective time is the damage under external fault conditions. The probability of failure in normal use is very low. Therefore, an important part of prolonging the service life of the module power supply and improving the system reliability is to select products with perfect protection function, that is, when the external circuit of the module power supply fails, the module power supply can automatically enter the protection state without permanent failure, and it should automatically return to normal after the external fault disappears. The protection function of module power supply shall at least include input overvoltage, undervoltage and soft start protection. Output overvoltage, overcurrent and short circuit protection, and high-power products shall also have over-temperature protection.Power consumption and efficiencyAccording to the formula, where pin, pout and P consumption are module power input, output power and self power loss respectively. It can be seen that under certain output power conditions, the smaller the module loss P consumption, the higher the efficiency, the lower the temperature rise and the longer the service life. In addition to the normal loss under full load, there are two losses worth noting: no-load loss and short-circuit loss (module power loss during output short circuit), because the smaller these two losses, the higher the module efficiency. In particular, if the short circuit fails to take measures in time, it may last for a long time, and the smaller the short-circuit loss, the probability of failure will be greatly reduced. Of course, the smaller the loss, the more in line with the requirements of energy conservation.
Composition and Working Principle of Linear Power Supply
Composition of linear regulated power supplyLinear regulated power supply is generally composed of power transformer, rectifier circuit, filter circuit and regulated circuit. Its structure is shown in figure 1-1-1.Figure 1-1-1 composition block diagram of linear regulated power supplyThe power transformer converts the AC input voltage (e.g. 220V, 50Hz) from the power grid into a lower AC voltage (e.g. 9V, 12V, 15V, etc.). Power transformers usually have two or more windings, of which the winding connected to AC power supply is called primary winding and the other windings are called secondary winding. The primary winding and secondary winding are electrically insulated. Therefore, the power transformer realizes the function of electrical isolation from the power grid while changing the voltage amplitude. Power transformer is also known as power frequency transformer. Its working frequency is 50Hz or 60Hz. It is bulky and bulky.The rectifier circuit is a semiconductor diode with unidirectional conductivity, which converts the alternating sinusoidal AC voltage into unidirectional pulsating DC voltage. The rectifier circuit usually selects a bridge rectifier device composed of four diodes, referred to as rectifier bridge. The pulsating DC voltage output by the rectifier circuit contains a large AC component and can not be directly used for electronic circuits. The filter circuit needs to be connected after the rectifier circuit.In the medium and small power linear power supply, the capacitor filter circuit is usually used. The capacitor filter circuit can be formed by directly connecting the filter capacitor in parallel with the output of the rectifier circuit. The filter circuit can filter out most of the AC components in the pulsating DC voltage and turn it into a relatively smooth DC voltage. Although the filtered DC voltage is relatively smooth, there is still a certain ripple voltage. Moreover, when the AC voltage of the power grid or the load current of the power supply changes, the filtered DC voltage will also change. In order to obtain a constant output voltage, a voltage stabilizing circuit needs to be added.The voltage stabilizing circuit can automatically adjust the circuit parameters when the grid voltage, load current and ambient temperature change, so as to keep the output voltage of the power supply constant. And the ripple of the output voltage can be reduced to a very small value.Small stickerVoltage stabilizing circuit is the core part of voltage stabilizing power supply.Working principle of linear regulated power supplyThe voltage stabilizing circuit structure and equivalent circuit of linear voltage stabilizing power supply are shown in figure 1-1-2, in which figure (a) is the structural block diagram and figure (b) is the equivalent circuit. In the figure, VT is called adjusting tube, and its function can be equivalent to variable resistance R. VD Z is a zener diode used to generate reference voltage (also known as reference voltage) U Ref. R 2 and R 3 are called sampling resistors. They are used to detect the output voltage u o and divide the voltage to generate the feedback voltage U F. EA is an error amplifier, which can compare and amplify the feedback voltage u F with the reference voltage U ref, so as to control the conduction of the adjusting tube. R L is the load resistance.Figure 1-1-2When the output voltage u o decreases for some reason (such as an increase in load current), the feedback voltage u F also decreases. The error amplifier EA compares and amplifies the feedback voltage u F with the reference voltage U ref, and its output voltage U C will rise, which will increase the base current of the regulating tube VT and reduce the equivalent resistance R, causing the output voltage u o to rise, and finally keep the output voltage u o stable.Through the equivalent circuit in figure (b), the voltage stabilizing principle can also be explained in another way. For example, when the input voltage U I increases for some reason, because R and R L are connected in series, if R is a fixed resistance, the output voltage u o will also increase. However, r here is the equivalent variable resistance of the adjusting tube vt. when the circuit detects that u o rises, it will automatically control the conduction of the adjusting tube VT to increase the equivalent resistance R, so as to keep the output voltage u o unchanged.Small stickerSince the regulating tube VT is connected in series between the input voltage U I and the output voltage u o, this regulated power supply is also called series regulated power supply.The output voltage u o of linear regulated power supply is lower than the input voltage U I, which belongs to step-down regulated power supply. Linear regulated power supply has the characteristics of fast response, small output ripple and low noise. It is widely used in various electronic circuits. However, due to the large volume and low efficiency of linear power supply, it is not conducive to energy conservation and environmental protection. It is being replaced by switching power supply in many application fields.
Improve the Efficiency and Reliability of Switching Power Supply: Half Bridge Resonant LLC CoolMOS
1. SummaryRecently, LLC topology is favored by power design engineers for its high efficiency and high power density, but the requirements of this soft switching topology for MOSFET exceed any previous hard switching topology. Especially in the case of power startup, dynamic load, overload, short circuit, etc. CoolMOS with its fast recovery body diode, low QG and coss can fully meet these needs and greatly improve the reliability of the power supply system.For a long time, improving the power density, efficiency and reliability of power supply system has been a major issue faced by R & D personnel. Increasing the switching frequency of power supply is one of the methods, but the increase of frequency will affect the switching loss of power devices, so the effect of increasing frequency is not very obvious for hard switching topology, which has reached its design bottleneck. At this time, soft switching topology, such as LLC topology, is sought after by the majority of design engineers because of its unique characteristics. However... This topology puts forward new requirements for power devices.2. Characteristics of LLC circuitThe following characteristics of LLC topology make it widely used in various switching power supplies:1. LLC converter can realize zero voltage switching in a wide load range.2. It can adjust the output when the input voltage and load change in a large range, and the change of switching frequency is relatively small.3. Frequency control is adopted, and the duty cycle of upper and lower tubes is 50%4. Lower voltage MOSFET can be used to reduce the voltage stress of secondary synchronous rectifier MOSFET, so as to reduce the cost.5. No output inductance is required, which can further reduce the system cost.6. The efficiency can be further improved by using lower voltage synchronous rectifier MOSFET.3. Basic structure and working principle of LLC circuitFigure 1 and Figure 2 show the typical circuit and working waveform of LLC resonant converter respectively. As shown in Fig. 1, the LLC converter includes two power MOSFETs (Q1 and Q2) with a duty cycle of 0.5; Resonant capacitance Cr, center tap transformer tr with equal secondary side turns, equivalent inductance LR, excitation inductance LM, full wave rectifier diodes D1 and D2 and output capacitance Co.Fig. 1 typical circuit of LLC Resonant ConverterFig. 2 working waveform of LLC Resonant ConverterLLC has two resonant frequencies, Cr and LR determine the resonant frequency FR1; LM, LR and Cr determine the resonant frequency FR2.When the load of the system changes, the working frequency of the system will change. When the load increases, the switching frequency of MOSFET decreases. When the load decreases, the switching frequency increases.3.1 working sequence of LLC Resonant ConverterThe steady-state working principle of LLC converter is as follows.1)〔t1,t2〕Q1 turns off, Q2 turns on, inductors LR and Cr resonate, secondary D1 turns off, D2 turns on, diode D1 is about twice the output voltage, and the energy is converted from Cr and LR to secondary. Until Q2 is off.2)〔t2,t3〕Q1 and Q2 are turned off at the same time. At this time, the inductor LR and LM current charge the output capacitor of Q2 and discharge the output capacitor of Q1 until the voltage of Q2 output capacitor is equal to VINSecondary D1 and D2 turn off VD1 = VD2 = 0. When Q1 is turned on, the phase ends.3)〔t3,t4〕Q1 on, Q2 off. D1 is on and D2 is off. At this time, VD2 = 2voutCr and LR resonate at FR1. At this time, the current of LS returns to VIN through Q1 until the current of LR is zero order phase.4)〔t4,t5〕Q1 on, Q2 off, D1 on, D2 off, VD2 = 2voutCr and LR resonate at FR1, and the current of LR flows back to power ground through Q1 in reverse. The energy is converted from the input to the secondary until Q1 turns off the end of the phase5)〔t5,t6)Q1 and Q2 are turned off at the same time, D1 and D2 are turned off, and the primary side current I (LR LM) charges the coss of Q1 and discharges coss2 until the coss voltage of Q2 is zero. At this time, Q2 diode begins to turn on. The phase ends when Q2 is turned on.6)〔t6,t7〕Q1 turns off, Q2 turns on, D1 turns off, D2 turns on, Cr and LS resonate at frequency FR1, and LR current returns to ground through Q2. When LR current is zero, the phase ends.3.2 abnormal state analysis of LLC Resonant ConverterThe above description is that LLC works in resonant mode. Next, we analyze the operation of LLC converter under startup, short circuit and dynamic load.3.21 startup status analysisThrough LLC simulation, we get the waveform shown in Figure 3. In the first switching cycle of startup, the upper and lower tubes will have a short peak current ids1 and ids2 at the same time. Since MOSFET Q1 will charge the output capacitor coss of lower tube Q2 when it is turned on, the charging ends when VDS is high. The peak currents ids1 and ids2 are also generated by VIN charging the Q2 junction capacitor coss through MOSFET Q1.Fig. 3 LLC simulation waveformWhen we focus on the second switching cycle, as shown in Figure 4, we find that there will be a peak current similar to the first switching cycle, and the peak will be higher. At the same time, MOSFET Q2 VDS also has a high DV / dt peak voltage. Is this peak current still caused by coss? Let's do further research.Fig. 4 waveform of the second switching cycleEngineers who have a certain understanding of the structure of MOSFET know that MOSFET is different from IGBT. In fact, there is a parasitic diode inside MOSFET. Like ordinary diodes, it needs to neutralize carriers in the cut-off process to reverse recovery. Only reverse voltage is added at both ends of the diode can make this reverse recovery complete quickly, The energy required for reverse recovery is related to the amount of charge qrr of the diode, and the reverse recovery of the body diode also needs to add a reverse voltage at both ends of the body diode. During startup, the voltage added to both ends of the diode VD = Id2 x Ron. While Id2 is almost zero during startup, and it takes a long time for the diode to reverse recover when VD is low. If the dead time setting is not enough, as shown in Figure 5, a high DV / dt will directly trigger the BJT in the MOSFET and breakdown the MOSFETFigure 5Through the actual test, we can repeat the similar waveform. The peak current in the second switching cycle is much higher than that in the first switching cycle. At the same time, when the MOSFET is started, the DV / DT is 118.4v/ns higher, and the VDS voltage exceeds the maximum value of 600V. MOSFET is at risk when starting up.Figure 63.22 abnormal state analysisNext, we continue to analyze the potential risks to the LLC topology when the load changes dramatically.When the load changes dramatically, such as short circuit, dynamic load and so on, the key device MOSFET of LLC circuit is also facing challenges.Generally, LLC will experience the following three states when the load changes. We call it hard turn off, and in the figure on the right, we can compare the differences in carrier changes between traditional MOSFET and CoolMOS and the risks to MOSFET.In sequence 1, Q2 zero voltage is turned on, and the reverse current passes through MOSFET and body diode. At this time, the secondary diode D2 is turned on and D1 is closed.-In traditional MOSFET, the electron current passes through the channel region, so as to reduce the number of holesAt this time, -CoolMOS is simultaneous interpreting the electron current through the channel and the hole as traditional MOSFET. The difference is that the structure of P well in CoolMOS is beginning to be established.In sequence 2, Q1 and Q2 are turned off at the same time, and the reverse current passes through the MOSFET Q2 body diode.When Q1 and Q2 are turned off, the internal electron and hole paths and flow directions are not much different from those of traditional MOSFET and CoolMOS.In sequence 3, Q1 starts to turn on at this time. Due to the change of load, the body diode of MOSFET Q2 needs a long time to reverse recover. When the diode reverse recovery is not completed, the MOSFET Q2 is hard turned off. At this time, Q1 is turned on, and the voltage applied to the Q2 body diode will form a large current in the diode, triggering the BJT inside the MOSFET and causing an avalanche.-At this time, the carriers of traditional MOSFET are extracted, the electrons gather around the PN node, and the hole current is blocked at the edge of the PN node.-The electron current and hole current of CoolMOS go their own way. At this time, the hole current flows in the established p-well structure without electron congestion.To sum up, under the conditions of overload, short circuit and dynamic load of LLC circuit, once the diode fails to reverse recover in time in the dead time, the huge composite current will trigger the BJT inside the MOSFET and make the MOSFET invalid.Some CoolMOS adopt super juction structure. When the MOSFET is hard turned off, the carriers will compound along the vertically constructed p-well, basically without lateral current, which greatly reduces the chance of triggering BJT.4. How to implement ZVS more easilyThrough the above analysis, it can be seen that increasing the dead time of MOSFET can provide sufficient diode reverse recovery time and reduce the risk of high DV / dt and di / dt to LLC circuit. But is increasing the dead time the only option? Let's further analyze how to reduce risks and improve system efficiency.Figure 7For LLC circuits, the initial current for dead time isAnd LLC can realize ZVS, which must meetThe minimum excitation inductance isAccording to the above three equations, we can make LLC realize ZVS in the following three waysFirst, add ipkSecond, increase the dead time.Third, reduce the equivalent capacitance CEQ, that is, CossFrom the above situations, it is not difficult for us to analyze. Increasing ipk will increase the inductance size and cost, and increasing the dead time will reduce the voltage during normal operation. Undoubtedly, the best choice is to reduce coss, because there is no need to make any adjustment to the circuit, just replace a MOSFET with a relatively small Coss.5. ConclusionLLC topology is widely used in various switching power supplies, and this topology not only improves the efficiency, but also puts forward new requirements for MOSFET. Different from the hard switching topology, the soft switching LLC resonant topology not only requires the on resistance (on loss) and QG (switching loss) of MOSFET, but also has higher requirements on how to effectively realize the soft switching, how to reduce the failure rate, improve the system reliability and reduce the system cost. CoolMOS has fast bulk diode, low coss, and some can reach a breakdown voltage of 650V, making LLC topology switching power supply more efficient and reliable.
How to Identify the Quality of LED Power Supply
After so many years of experience in contact with lamp manufacturers, it is often felt that lamp manufacturers do not want to buy good LED power supply, but do not know how to distinguish whether the purchased LED power supply is good or not, and they are also worried about whether they spend a high price on low-quality LED power supply. Therefore, as a lamp manufacturer, the most difficult feedback is to buy LED power supply, because the quality of power supply is difficult to detect. It has aged for 4 hours in its own factory, and some even aged for 24-72 hours, but these aging products often have 5% left-right or higher proportion of defects within 3-6 months of shipment. Often these bad situations make the lamp manufacturers miserable, do a customer and lose a customer.What if the quality of LED power supply is good or bad? We can identify from the following points:First, the driver chip - ICThe core of driving power supply is IC. The quality of IC directly affects the whole power supply. The driver IC of large manufacturers are purchased from Jingyuan and packaged by large packaging plants; The driving IC technology of small factories is to directly copy the driving design scheme of large factories and find a small packaging factory for packaging, which can not normally ensure the consistency and stability of the whole batch of ICs, resulting in the inexplicable failure of the driving power supply after being used for a period of time. Therefore, the IC on the LED power supply refuses to be polished, so that the lamp manufacturers can understand the IC scheme and calculate the driving cost, so as to purchase power products at a reasonable price.Second, transformerThe control chip can be regarded as the brain center of the power supply, and the transformer determines the power and temperature resistance. The transformer is responsible for completing the "AC magnetic energy DC", and the energy overload will saturate and blow up the machine. The core of the transformer is the magnetic core and wire package.The quality of magnetic core is the core of transformer, but like porcelain, it is very difficult to distinguish. The simple appearance identification is: the appearance is crisp, dense and bright, and the pores on the back are polished at the same time. At present, the magnetic core used by Shanghai Nuoyi is the open mold pc44 magnetic core to ensure the high efficiency of the power supply.The wire package is made of copper wire winding. The quality of copper wire is the key to the service life of transformer. Copper clad aluminum wire of the same length is 1 / 4 of the price of pure copper wire. Due to cost pressure, transformer manufacturers will often be mixed with copper clad aluminum wire wrapped transformers. As a result, the transformer will burn out when the temperature rises, resulting in the failure of power supply and the whole lamp. Therefore, many lamps, especially lamps with built-in power supply, often explode within about 6 months of shipment. How to distinguish whether the copper wire is pure copper wire or copper-clad aluminum? Use a lighter to ignite it and burn it quickly, that is, copper-clad aluminum. It can also be identified by measuring the coil resistance.Third, electrolytic capacitor and chip ceramic capacitorThe quality and service life requirements of the input electrolytic capacitor may be well known and we all attach great importance to it. However, we often ignore the quality requirements of the output capacitor. In fact, the life of the output capacitor has a great impact on the life of the power supply. The output terminal has a switching frequency of up to 60000 times per second, which leads to the increase of parasitic resistance heating of the capacitor and the generation of substances similar to scale. Finally, the electrolyte heats up and explodes. Recommended output electrolytic capacitor: LED special electrolytic capacitor is adopted, and the general model starts with L. At present, our output electrolytic capacitors are Aihua high-life electrolytic capacitors.Ceramic capacitor: the material is divided into X7R, X5R and Y5V, while the actual capacity value of Y5V can only reach 1 / 10 of the actual capacity value, and the nominal capacity value only refers to working at 0V. Therefore, the small chip resistance and poor options will also lead to the price difference of cost and greatly shorten the service life of power supply.Fourth, the circuit design and welding process of power productsJudging the advantages and disadvantages of design: regardless of the professional point of view, it can be distinguished by some intuitive methods, such as neat, generous and orderly component layout, bright, clean and straight solder joints. A good engineer will not make disorderly design. As for flying wires and manual components, there is a serious lack of technical force.Welding process: manual welding and wave soldering process. As we all know, the wave soldering process quality of mechanized production must be better than manual welding. Distinguishing method: whether there is red glue on the back. (solder paste process welding fixture can also realize wave soldering, but the fixture cost is high).Solder joint testing instrument for patch: AOI. The equipment can detect the phenomena of false welding, false welding and missing welding in the process of chip placement.At present, the flashing phenomenon of lamps and lanterns in use for a period of time is basically caused by the faulty welding of power supply or lamp beads. The false soldering test of this product is very difficult to pass the aging test, so we must rely on AOI to test the patch quality of the power supply.Fifth, the batch testing of power products, aging rack and high-temperature aging roomNo matter how well the materials and production process are controlled, the power products still need to be tested for aging. Because the incoming inspection of electronic components and transformers is difficult to control. Only through the aging of the whole batch of power supply and high-temperature sampling inspection of high-temperature room, can we detect the quality stability of this batch of power supply and whether there are potential safety hazards of materials.Function of mass high-temperature sampling inspection: at present, the failure of power supply is between 1% and 1%, and such failure can only be found after thousands of high-temperature aging.The high-temperature room can simulate the harsh environment of power supply. Batch problems can be found through sampling inspection under tightened conditions, such as unreasonable design, poor raw materials, failure in deduction lamps, high-voltage switch impact, etc.Long term aging at normal temperature: random failures such as false welding, missing welding and collision are screened out, early failures of components are filtered out, and the failure rate of finished products is effectively reduced (from 1% to 1 / 1000).Normal temperature aging consumes aging equipment and personnel. For factories with a daily output of 100000 power supplies, aging equipment covers an area of at least 500 square meters, more than 10000 aging bits, and realizes assembly line aging, which is rare in the industry.Source: OFweek semiconductor lighting network
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