Which Is Better, Lead-acid Or Lithium Battery_ Comparative Analysis of Lithium Battery and Lead-acid

Most people are sure to care about the price and the battery, the most important part of electric vehicles, before buying a car. There are no more than two kinds of batteries on the market: lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries, which also largely determines the overall price. Lead-acid batteries are cheap and lithium batteries are expensive, which makes many consumers shy away from lithium batteries and choose lead-acid batteries.

Comparative analysis of lithium battery and lead-acid battery

At present, the places where electric vehicles are sold, whether battery brands, styles or brands, are diverse, while lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries occupy the dominant position. The following Xiaobian makes you more aware of the relationship and difference between the two through comparison.

Generally, the lead-acid battery pack weighs 16-30kg and has a large volume; The weight of lithium battery is generally 2.5-3.0kg, and the volume is relatively small, so it is light to ride and convenient to carry. In terms of quality, it is difficult to define the quality of the two, but consumers can buy high-quality batteries produced by regular manufacturers according to their actual needs.

The cost of cathode material, cathode material, collector, diaphragm, electrolyte and other main materials of lithium battery is much higher than that of lead-acid battery. The cost of assembly auxiliary materials and external circuit system of lead-acid battery is very low.

Due to the manufacturing process, the labor cost of lithium battery is relatively large. In the manufacturing cost, the labor cost of lithium battery accounts for more than 40%, while the labor cost of lead-acid battery is generally 10% 20%.

The mechanical equipment used in the production of lithium batteries is expensive and of high value, and the depreciation loss of mechanical equipment is large. Most processes of lithium batteries are irreversible in production, while lead-acid batteries are reversibly repaired and reused. The recovery value of lead-acid battery is more than 40%, while the recovery value of lithium battery is almost zero.

Lithium batteries are more than three times higher than lead-acid batteries in terms of volume specific energy and weight specific energy. Lithium batteries are smaller and lighter. Long cycle life. The cycle life of lithium battery used in electric vehicle is generally more than 800 times. The lithium battery with lithium iron phosphate cathode material can reach about 2000 times, which is 1.5 5 times higher than that of lead-acid battery. This greatly reduces the use cost of lithium battery, prolongs the service life and improves the convenience of use. It has a wide range of charging efficiency. This is the unique advantage of lithium battery. When necessary, the charging time can be controlled within 20min 1H, and the charging efficiency can reach more than 84%. On the basis of further technological innovation, this feature will be brought into better play.

We know that generally, the comparison of energy storage products should be carried out from the perspectives of weight energy density, volume energy density, service life, price, applicability and national policies:

Weight energy density

At present, the energy density of lithium battery is generally 200 260wh / g, and that of lead acid is generally 50 70wh / g. then the weight energy density of lithium battery is 3 5 times that of lead acid, which means that under the condition of the same capacity, the lead-acid battery is 3 5 times that of lithium battery. Therefore, lithium battery occupies an absolute advantage in the lightweight of energy storage device.

Bulk energy density

The volume capacity density of lithium battery is usually about 1.5 times that of lead-acid battery, so the volume of lithium battery is about 30% smaller than that of lead-acid battery under the condition of the same capacity.

Service cycle

At present, the more popular material systems are ternary and iron lithium. The cycle times of ternary power lithium battery are usually more than 1000, that of lithium iron phosphate battery is more than 2000, and that of lead-acid battery is usually only about 300 350. Therefore, the service life of lithium battery is about 3-6 times that of lead-acid battery.

Price

At present, the price of lithium battery is about three times higher than that of lead-acid, but combined with the service life analysis, the service life of lithium battery is still longer with the same cost.

Applicability

Because the safety of lithium battery is slightly worse than that of lead-acid battery, various safety precautions need to be done in use, such as preventing damage to lithium battery caused by external force or accident, because it may cause fire or explosion; At present, the temperature applicability of lithium battery is also very good, so in other adaptability, lithium battery is not inferior to lead-acid battery.

National policy

The harm of lead-acid batteries to the environment caused by production links or waste batteries is quite serious. Therefore, from the perspective of national policy guidance, the expansion and reinvestment of lead-acid batteries have been restricted, or the use of lead-acid batteries has been restricted in some fields. In the future, the trend of replacing lead-acid batteries with lithium batteries will become more and more obvious, and the progress will be gradually accelerated.

How to correctly distinguish between lead-acid battery and lithium battery

● battery capacity

The capacity of lithium battery is generally 8-10 a, and the capacity of lead-acid battery is about 20 a.

● mileage

For example, with the same 48V battery, when fully charged, electric vehicles with lithium battery and lead-acid battery can travel 30-40km, and their speed mainly depends on the size of the motor used.

● durability

Lithium battery has strong durability, slow consumption, more than 500 times of charging and discharging, and no memory. The general service life is 4-5 years. Lead acid batteries generally have memory within 400 times of deep charge and deep discharge, and their service life is about two years. If the maintenance free lead-acid battery is used, it should be noted that the battery has less water loss, and distilled water is generally not required to be added in use. In terms of durability, the lithium battery has good vibration resistance. The battery in fully charged state is safe and fixed. It vibrates at an amplitude of 4mm and a frequency of 16.7hz for 1 hour, without liquid leakage, battery expansion and rupture, and the open circuit voltage is normal; Good overcharge resistance, 25 ° C, fully charged battery 0.1CA, charging for 48 hours, no liquid leakage, no battery expansion and rupture, normal open circuit voltage, and capacity maintenance rate of more than 95%; It has good high current resistance. The fully charged battery 2ca discharges for 5 minutes or 10Ca discharges for 5 seconds. There is no fusing of the conductive part and no appearance deformation.

● price and warranty period

At present, the mainstream battery in the market is 48 v. if it needs to be replaced, the lead-acid battery is about 380-450 yuan (48v12ah-48v20ah), and the warranty period is 1 year; The price of lithium battery is relatively expensive, which requires about 1000 (48v12ah) yuan, but its warranty period is 2 years.

Which Is Better, Lead-acid Or Lithium Battery_ Comparative Analysis of Lithium Battery and Lead-acid 1

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