Summary of National ImpactsImpact by Sector

Summary of national impactsImpact by sector

Summary of National ImpactsImpact by Sector 1

Various service sectors are expected to be hit especially hard by the coronavirus recession. Automotive industryNew vehicle sales in the United States have declined by 40%. The American Big Three have all shut down their US factories. The German automotive industry is coming into the crisis after having already suffered from the Dieselgate-scandal, as well as competition from electric cars. EnergyThe demand shock to oil was so severe that the price of American oil futures contracts became negative (bottoming out at $-37.63 per barrel on the West Texas Intermediate), as traders started paying for buyers to take the product before storage capacity ran out. This was despite an earlier OPEC deal which cut world production by 10% and ended the 2020 Russia-Saudi Arabia oil price war. TourismThe global tourism industry may shrink up to 50% due to the pandemic. RestaurantsThe COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the restaurant business. In the beginning of March 2020, some major cities in the US announced that bars and restaurants would be closed to sit-down diners and limited to takeout orders and delivery. Some employees were fired, and more employees lacked sick leave in the sector compared to similar sectors. RetailShopping centers and other retailers around the world have reduced hours or closed down entirely. Many were expected not to recover, thereby accelerating the effects of the retail apocalypse. Department stores and clothing shops have been especially hit. TransportationThe pandemic has had a significant impact on the aviation industry due to the resulting travel restrictions as well as slump in demand among travelers. Significant reductions in passenger numbers have resulted in planes flying empty between airports and the cancellation of flights. The following airlines have gone bankrupt or into administration: Compass Airlines Flybe Trans States Airlines Virgin Australia Air Mauritius AviancaThe cruise ship industry has also been heavily affected by a downturn, with the share prices of the major cruise lines down 70-80%.

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Unión General de Trabajadores (sector histórico)

Unin General de Trabajadores (sector histrico) ('General Workers' Union (historical sector)', abbreviated UGT(H)) was a trade union centre in Spain during the Transition years. UGT(H) emerged from a split in the Unin General de Trabajadores and was linked to the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (historic) (PSOE(H)). The split in UGT was linked to the split in PSOE after its 1973 congress in Toulouse. .

Summary of National ImpactsImpact by Sector 2

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Energy sector

ElectricityClimate Change increases the risk of wildfires that can be caused by power lines. In 2019, after "red flag" warning about the possibility of wildfires was declared in some areas of California, the electricity company "Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)" begun to shut down power, for preventing inflammation of trees that touch the electricity lines. Millions can be impacted. The climatic conditions that caused this warning will become more frequent because of climate change. If the temperatures keep rising, effects such as power outage could become common. Oil, coal and natural gasOil and natural gas infrastructure is vulnerable to the effects of climate change and the increased risk of disasters such as storm, cyclones, flooding and long-term increases in sea level. Minimising these risks by building in less disaster prone areas, can be expensive and impossible in countries with coastal locations or island states. All thermal power stations depend on water to cool them. Not only is there increased demand for fresh water, but climate change can increase the likelihood of drought and fresh water shortages. Another impact for thermal power plants, is that increasing the temperatures in which they operate reduces their efficiency and hence their output. The source of oil often comes from areas prone to high natural disaster risks; such as tropical storms, hurricanes, cyclones, and floods. An example is Hurricane Katrina's impact on oil extraction in the Gulf of Mexico, as it destroyed 126 oil and gas platforms and damaged 183 more. However, previously pristine arctic areas will now be available for resource extraction. NuclearClimate change, along with extreme weather and natural disasters can affect nuclear power plants in a similar way to those using oil, coal, and natural gas. However, the impact of water shortages on nuclear power plants cooled by rivers will be greater than on other thermal power plants. This is because old reactor designs with water-cooled cores must run at lower internal temperatures and thus, paradoxically, must dump more heat to the environment to produce a given amount of electricity. This situation has forced some nuclear reactors to be shut down and will do so again unless the cooling systems of these plants are enhanced to provide more capacity. Nuclear power supply was diminished by low river flow rates and droughts, which meant rivers had reached the maximum temperatures for cooling. Such shutdowns happened in France during the 2003 and 2006 heat waves. During the heat waves, 17 reactors had to limit output or shut down. 77% of French electricity is produced by nuclear power; and in 2009 a similar situation created a 8GW shortage, and forced the French government to import electricity. Other cases have been reported from Germany, where extreme temperatures have reduced nuclear power production 9 times due to high temperatures between 1979 and 2007. In particular: The Unterweser nuclear power plant reduced output by 90% between June and September 2003. The Isar nuclear power plant cut production by 60% for 14 days due to excess river temperatures and low stream flow in the river Isar in 2006.Similar events have happened elsewhere in Europe during those same hot summers. Many scientists agree that if global warming continues, this disruption is likely to increase. HydroelectricityChanges in the amount of river flow will correlate with the amount of energy produced by a dam. Lower river flows because of drought, climate change, or upstream dams and diversions, will reduce the amount of live storage in a reservoir; therefore reducing the amount of water that can be used for hydroelectricity. The result of diminished river flow can be a power shortage in areas that depend heavily on hydroelectric power. The risk of flow shortage may increase as a result of climate change. Studies from the Colorado River in the United States suggests that modest climate changes (such as a 2 degree change in Celsius that could result in a 10% decline in precipitation), might reduce river run-off by up to 40%. Brazil in particular, is vulnerable due to its having reliance on hydroelectricity as increasing temperatures, lower water flow, and alterations in the rainfall regime, could reduce total energy production by 7% annually by the end of the century.

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