Forcibly Underclocking at Night

Here's a program that does what you want:Note your preferences:I'm using pulseaudio to find out if a movie is playing. This also affect music

My desktop stays on all the time. It acts as a server and also performs other semi-essential household tasks. During the day it uses the OnDemand CPU setting. This essentially just scales the CPU frequency as it needs it and this works really well for me.

At night time, it flits around. Of course most of the time it's idling along at a low power but occasionally, it'll ramp up to do something. I would rather it stayed on PowerSave and tasks were just forced to take a little longer to complete.

Additionally, I have a Nvidia card (GTX 580) which can consume about the same amount of power as a small African village uses in a year when it wants to (glares at Minecraft). For unknown reasons (undoubtedly something happening on the desktop), this ramps up, the fans sound like they're charging up to fire lasers into space. At night time, I'd like to underclock the card as far as it'll go.

I've considered a simple root-run cron script to push these through but my working hours are variable. Last week I had a near-70 hour working week so I was up very early and still up very late, every day. If the system was honking along at super-underclock mode, I would have been furious. Is there something I could do to say, "Underclock if:

It's between 10pm and 9am

There hasn't been any mouse/keyboard activity for 10 minutes

There isn't a movie playing

If one of those conditions isn't true, the underclock needs to revert instantly. I don't want to wait for a cron-script to come along to wake the computer up from its slumber. Similarly, as soon as all of those do become true, it should go back to sleep.

What are my options?

Forcibly Underclocking at Night 1

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Reference Design of Power Supply and Serializer for Automobile Camera Module
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Composition, Advantages and Disadvantages of Modular UPS Power Supply
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Modular UPS power supply adopts drawer type, high intelligent multi-standard modular design and online hot plug technology to realize online replacement and online maintenance, reduce maintenance difficulty and implement zero shutdown. N X parallel redundant wireless technology is adopted, and each module rack can be completely separated, which is convenient for users to expand or reduce capacity in the future. The concept of "multilevel inverter" is preferentially used in the inverter structure, which greatly reduces the loss of power devices and nearly doubles the high-order harmonic of output voltage, so as to reduce the volume and increase the power density.Advantages of modular UPSModularization is considered as the development trend of UPS Technology. Compared with UPS in the traditional sense, modular UPS has three advantages.First, "modular redundant parallel" technology avoids resource waste. 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Users do not need to consider how to purchase UPS products with different phases or capacities to meet the needs of the system.Disadvantages of modular UPSPopularization and application also need to break through the price barrierThe difficulties restricting the development of rack mounted modular UPS mainly focus on the improvement of power density, the increase of parallel quantity and the reduction of price.The rack type modular UPS transits from the traditional vertical (tower) structure. Compared with the traditional vertical (tower) structure, the modular UPS has a wide heat dissipation channel and the huge volume of large-size and high-power heat dissipation fans. Due to the convenience of single replacement operation, the bulk weight of the module is small.Due to the limitation of volume, when the power of UPS module increases, heat dissipation becomes a big problem. 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Use and Precautions of UPS Power Supply
Use and Precautions of UPS Power Supply
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How to Optimize Base Station System with Digital Power Supply
How to Optimize Base Station System with Digital Power Supply
Base station power engineers are facing many design challenges. Wireless operators want them to reduce power consumption and system volume. Subsystem power supply also requires some complex tasks such as sequencing, monitoring, margin adjustment and so on. In order to meet the above application requirements to the greatest extent, designers must adopt various compromise methods to achieve the balance between power conversion efficiency and size, performance complexity and cost. This paper introduces a new and highly integrated power supply scheme, which not only provides system design flexibility, but also effectively optimizes system performance to help designers overcome the challenges they face.increase of efficiencyThe energy cost of base station operation is of great significance to wireless operators. More efficient power supply schemes are needed to reduce operating costs. In addition, the reduction of power consumption also contributes to the heat dissipation design, and operators can use smaller radiators in wireless units. The smaller the radiator, the smaller the size of the unit circuit. Finally, since wireless units are usually installed on poles or on one side of buildings, reducing the overall size can minimize mechanical stress.The baseband unit of the base station usually provides fast signal processing capability to process a large amount of data and voice traffic of the network. The baseband unit requires high current and multi-channel voltage power supply, and the total power supply current may exceed 60A, which requires multi-phase power supply solution and remote control function. The technologies to improve power conversion efficiency include reducing conduction loss, switching loss and reverse recovery loss. The conduction loss can be reduced by selecting a MOSFET with low on resistance (RON); Higher gate drive also helps to reduce the on resistance (rrdson), but higher switching voltage will increase the switching loss to some extent. Nevertheless, it is preferable to select a settable gate drive function. When the load current is large, the higher gate driving voltage will reduce the conduction loss; Under light load conditions, the grid driving voltage can be reduced. Automatic selection can optimize the balance between conduction loss and switching loss, which is conducive to the design of base station power supply.The max15301 digital load point (POL) controller uses advanced algorithms to achieve the highest level of conversion efficiency and transient response over the entire operating range. The device provides advanced high efficiency and adaptive gate drive for external MOSFET. The device optimizes the power efficiency by continuously and adaptively adjusting the load, voltage and current.Simplify power supply complexity and improve system reliabilityIf the system parameters can be monitored, the system performance can be better managed and the system reliability can be improved. As mentioned above, the baseband unit must have strong signal processing capability to process a large amount of data and voice traffic. During power on / off, multiple power supplies with different current / voltage must be turned on / off in the correct order. It is necessary to monitor the current and temperature during baseband operation to ensure that the system works within the tolerance range, and provide alarm or fault indication signals when necessary. In addition, the remote control function and advanced fault management function can ensure higher reliability of the base station. If the simulation scheme is adopted, these functions will require the support of multiple devices and power management. The digital scheme can reduce the design complexity and only need an independent power management chip (as shown in Figure 1).The base station power supply often requires a very complex power management controller, and each function requires the cooperation of multiple discrete components. The total circuit board area and complexity of the design scheme also increase accordingly. In addition, because the base station works under extreme temperature conditions, the design scheme must be reliable in a wide operating temperature range. For the traditional analog power supply scheme, the compensation can only be set under a single working condition, and the problem of wide working range must be solved. At the same time, the difference of passive components (such as inductance and capacitance) also aggravates the complexity of power compensation.Digital system can be used as an alternative, which can realize automatic compensation in digital architecture and help to optimize bandwidth. The load transient response with larger bandwidth helps to improve the system tolerance or eliminate the output capacitance, so as to reduce the size of the system. In addition, because the parameters of passive components change with the change of temperature, the automatic compensation function can adjust adaptively to adapt to the change of conditions, so as to realize the optimal design in the whole temperature range.Fig. 1 system design of analog (left) and digital (right) schemes.The digital scheme integrates power management for each DC-DC converter to form a flexible and easy to reduce system. Digital remote control continuously monitors system compensation to ensure optimal base station performance. Maxim intune products, such as max15301, solve the design problems of power management. These products are easy to realize high-performance, DC-DC power supply design, smaller filter capacitor size and higher work efficiency. The digital power supply technology is based on "state space" or "model predictive" control rather than proportional integral differential (PID) control, which is adopted by most digital controllers. The automatic compensation process in max15301 is based on the measured parameters, which is conducive to the construction of the internal mathematical model of the power supply, including external components, and finally makes the switching power supply have higher dynamic performance and ensure stable operation. The design uses a variety of patented algorithms to optimize efficiency in a wide working range.Reduce board areaSince the antenna may be installed on buildings, transmission towers or utility poles, the system weight has become the main consideration. There is an urgent need to reduce the circuit board area of wireless units, especially baseband units. The powerful digital processor occupies a very large circuit board area. The integrated MOSFET has a smaller package and can be used for load point power supply. This scheme is feasible for low power applications, but it is not suitable for high current design. The controller based scheme allows the optimal selection of MOSFET devices for specific working conditions, so it has greater flexibility. This scheme is also conducive to circuit board heat dissipation and thermal management. Of course, the external MOSFET will increase the circuit board area.Since the power supply current of baseband unit will be as high as 60A / power supply, polyphase conversion scheme is required. For these high current power supplies, it is necessary to increase the number of passive components (capacitance in this example) to meet the transient requirements. Max15301 can be configured for stand-alone or polyphase operation. Max15301 digital controller adopts proprietary automatic adjustment technology, which greatly simplifies the design. There is no need for the engineer to compensate the power supply in the design, which can ensure the best compensation. The integrated remote control function also reduces the requirements for external IC and can support higher density design.summaryBase station power design needs to carefully weigh the relationship between volume, efficiency and performance. Maxim's new generation power supply scheme based on digital remote control has the advantages of simplicity, flexibility and convenient adjustment. The power supply system designed with max1531 can provide higher integration and flexibility. Optimize overall performance through continuous compensation monitoring. In addition, the digital remote control function makes the design balance and compromise simpler and more direct.
The New Form of Power Supply 3.3V and 5V Will Be Replaced by 12V
The New Form of Power Supply 3.3V and 5V Will Be Replaced by 12V
Small partners who have installation experience or pay attention to our push must know that the output of the power supply has different voltage standards, such as 3.3V, 5V and 12V. Their output power affects each other, and some have special interfaces. Do you think it's troublesome to use so many voltages and so many interfaces? Then, can't you travel as long as 12V output? Let's talk about it today.Let's see what 3.3V and 5V voltages do first. In current computers, 3.3V is mainly used to drive low-voltage devices such as CPU and memory after the voltage conversion of the main board; 5V is mainly used to drive hard disk, optical drive and other equipment. 3.3V is not a direct power supply, but also needs to be converted. Of course, 12V can be used instead; In fact, 5V is also replaced by 12V in the SATA power supply port. Only the large 4Pin power supply is still pure 5V voltage, but few devices are used.SATA power supply port provides 5V and 12V power supply at the same time. Most new hard disks directly use 12V power supplyOK, these two main voltages can be replaced by 12V. How many voltage settings are there? In fact, most of them are standards left over from previous specifications, and their functions are particularly single. For example, the full name of 5V sb is 5V stand by, which is a power supply purely used for equipment sleep and waiting for wake-up. It can be replaced by 12V. Moreover, because of the high voltage, there is more power when the current remains unchanged, which can maintain more equipment sleep.Speaking of this, you can guess that this specification and even products must have come out? Yes, the above picture is of course the logo of this product. Does the parameter look very simple? Without interfaces such as large 4Pin and small 4in (floppy drive), its connection is also much simpler. And because the voltage is more single, the conversion efficiency can be easily high. 80plus gold certification is just a small thing.Little friends have a look at the vertical and horizontal power supply in their computer. Do they have the impulse to change the power supply? Don't worry. At present, this power supply will first be used in brand machines. The equipment in the personal market is more complex, and the popularization of the new specification will be slower. Interested partners may wish to save money silently and eliminate some old equipment that need large 4Pin interface and 5V power supply. Maybe you can choose the new specification for the next installation. Try simple happiness.
Maintenance and Management of UPS Power Supply System (teach You to Use Your UPS Power Supply Reason
Maintenance and Management of UPS Power Supply System (teach You to Use Your UPS Power Supply Reason
In order to improve the reliability and maintainability of these equipment, many enterprises are equipped with UPS power supply system. UPS (i.e. uninterruptible power) power supply system is composed of rectifier, energy storage device, inverter and static switch. At present, there are many kinds of UPS systems in the domestic and foreign markets, and their main functions and principles are basically the same. The following is a brief introduction to their use and maintenance from several aspects.1 function of UPSUPS is mainly used in two aspects: one is for emergency use to prevent sudden power failure from affecting the normal operation of equipment and causing damage to electrical equipment; Second, eliminate the "power pollution" such as surge, instantaneous high voltage, instantaneous low voltage, power line noise and frequency offset on the municipal power supply, improve the power quality and provide high-quality power supply for electric equipment.UPS is mainly composed of rectifier system, energy storage system, conversion system and switch control system. When the power supply system supplies power, the rectifier system is a device that converts alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). After filtering and voltage stabilization, it is supplied to the inverter or charged to the energy storage system, playing the role of charger. Energy storage system is a device used by UPS to store electric energy. It is composed of several batteries in series. The battery capacity determines the time of maintaining discharge (power supply). The main function of the energy storage system is to convert electric energy into chemical energy and store it in the battery when the power supply system is normal; In case of power supply system failure, convert chemical energy into electrical energy and provide it to inverter or load. Conversion system is a device that converts direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC). It is composed of inverter bridge, control logic circuit and filter circuit. Switch change-over control system is a contactless switch, which is an AC switch composed of thyristor (SCR) in reverse parallel. Its closing and opening are controlled by logic controller, which is divided into conversion type and parallel type. The transfer switch is mainly used in the system powered by two power supplies, and its function is to realize the automatic switching from one power supply to the other; Parallel type switch is mainly used in the system of parallel inverter and power supply line or multiple inverters.2 use management of UPSThe correct use of UPS power supply system can not only protect it, but also prolong its service life. Specifically, we can start from the following aspects:(1) Check ups power supply regularlyWhen using UPS power supply system, not only the main components shall be checked regularly, but also the terminal voltage and internal resistance of each battery unit of UPS battery pack shall be detected. If it is found that the terminal voltage difference of a battery unit of its battery pack is greater than 0.4 V or the internal resistance is greater than 0.08 Ω, disconnect the connecting wire between the abnormal battery unit and the battery pack, use an external independent charger to charge the abnormal battery unit separately, and keep its charging voltage (for 12V battery) between 13.5 and 13.8 v, The charging time shall be controlled within 10 12h. It should be noted that during the use of UPS power supply, the charging of each battery unit in the battery pack will be inconsistent, which may lead to the imbalance of battery unit terminal voltage and battery internal resistance. These problems can not be eliminated and corrected by relying on the internal charging circuit of UPS power supply system. If the unbalanced battery unit is not charged offline in time, the above problems may be more serious. Therefore, charging it separately can restore the internal resistance of the battery unit to within 0.03 Ω; When the battery is charged, the battery unit is connected to the battery pack in time, and the ups charging system is used for unified charging.(2) First chargeBefore using the new UPS power supply, the battery should be directly charged for about 12h under no-load state. If the UPS power supply is in the floating charge state without discharge operation for a long time, the whole UPS is in the power storage state. If this state is maintained for too long, the battery function may decline because it is in the storage state for a long time, and the battery will slowly fail or scrap over time. It is recommended to use UPS battery to supply power to the equipment once in about three months to make the ups battery discharge normally, and the battery discharge voltage should be controlled above the allowable minimum discharge voltage.(3) Selection of charging timeIn order to prevent the battery unit of UPS power supply from premature damage due to long-term insufficient charging, users using UPS should arrange the battery charging time at night as much as possible, so as to ensure that the battery has enough time and stable voltage to charge the battery after discharge.(4) Excessive discharge shall be prevented when using UPS power supplyAs we all know, the excessive discharge times of UPS power supply should be minimized during operation, because the excessive discharge times directly affect the battery life.When the power supply system is powered off and the ups battery pack outputs current to its inverter, the UPS power supply will generally send out an alarm sound every 4 5S to remind the user that the UPS power supply is in the battery power supply state; When the time period of the alarm sound becomes very short, it indicates that the battery has entered or is about to be over discharged. At this time, emergency treatment should be done well before the excessive discharge of UPS power supply, and the generator set should be used to replace the power supply system to supply power to UPS power supply in time, so as to avoid the excessive discharge of UPS battery pack. If the excessive discharge of UPS battery pack is not repaired in time and effectively, the service life of UPS battery pack will be greatly reduced.
Common Problems and Solutions of Switching Power Supply Commissioning
Common Problems and Solutions of Switching Power Supply Commissioning
Switching power supply, also known as switching power supply and switching converter, is a high-frequency electric energy conversion device and a kind of power supply. Its function is to convert a standard voltage into the voltage or current required by the user through different forms of architecture. The input of switching power supply is mostly AC power supply (such as mains power) or DC power supply, while the output is mostly equipment requiring DC power supply, such as personal computer, and switching power supply converts the voltage and current between the two. Let me introduce some problems and solutions that will be encountered in the commissioning of switching power supply.1. Transformer saturationWhen starting up under high voltage or low voltage input (including light load, heavy load, capacitive load), output short circuit, dynamic load, high temperature, etc., the current through the transformer (and switch tube) increases nonlinearly. When this phenomenon occurs, the peak value of the current cannot be predicted and controlled, which may lead to current stress and resulting switch tube overvoltage and damage.Situations prone to saturation:1) Transformer inductance is too large;2) Too few turns;3) The saturation current point of transformer is smaller than the maximum current limiting point of IC;4) No soft start.terms of settlement:1) Reduce the current limiting point of IC;2) Strengthen the soft start to make the current envelope through the transformer rise more slowly.2. VDS too highStress requirements for VDS:Under the worst conditions (maximum input voltage, maximum load, maximum ambient temperature, power start or short circuit test), the maximum value of VDS shall not exceed 90% of the rated specification.Methods to reduce VDS:1) Reduce the platform voltage: reduce the ratio of primary and secondary side turns of the transformer;2) Reduce peak voltage:a. Reduce the leakage inductance. The main reason for this peak voltage is that the transformer leakage inductance stores energy when the switch is turned on. Reducing the leakage inductance can reduce the peak voltage;b. Adjust the absorption circuit:â‘  Use TVs tube;â‘¡ Using a slower diode, it can absorb a certain amount of energy (peak);â‘¢ Inserting damping resistance can make the waveform smoother and reduce EMI.3. IC temperature too highCauses and solutions:1) Internal MOSFET loss is too large:The switching loss is too large and the parasitic capacitance of the transformer is too large, resulting in a large cross area between the on and off current of MOSFET and VDS. Solution: increase the distance between the transformer windings to reduce the interlayer capacitance. Just as when the windings are wound in multiple layers, add a layer of insulating tape (interlayer insulation) between the layers.2) Poor heat dissipation:A large part of the heat of IC depends on the pins to lead to the PCB and its copper foil. Try to increase the area of copper foil and solder more3) Air temperature around IC is too high:The IC shall be in a place with smooth air flow and shall be far away from parts with too high temperature.4. No load and light load cannot be startedPhenomenon:No load and light load cannot be started, and VCC repeatedly jumps back and forth from the starting voltage and shutdown voltage.reason:Under no-load and light load, the induced voltage of VCC winding is too low and enters the repeated restart state.terms of settlement:Increase the number of VCC winding turns, reduce the VCC current limiting resistance, and add false load appropriately. If VCC becomes too high under heavy load after increasing the number of VCC windings and reducing VCC current limiting resistance, please refer to the method of stabilizing VCC.5. Overload is not allowed after startupCauses and solutions:1) VCC is too high during heavy loadUnder heavy load, the induced voltage of VCC winding is high, which makes VCC too high and reaches the OVP point of IC, which will trigger the overvoltage protection of IC and cause no output. If the voltage rises further and exceeds the bearing capacity of the IC, the IC will be damaged.2) Internal current limit triggereda. Current limiting point too lowUnder heavy load and capacitive load, if the current limiting point is too low, the current flowing through the MOSFET is limited and insufficient, resulting in insufficient output. The solution is to increase the resistance of the current limiting pin and improve the current limiting point.b. Current rise slope too largeIf the rising slope is too large, the peak value of current will be larger, which is easy to trigger internal current limiting protection. The solution is to increase the inductance without saturating the transformer.6. High standby input powerPhenomenon:VCC is insufficient under no-load and light load. This situation will cause too high input power and too large output ripple under no-load and light load.reason:The reason why the input power is too high is that when the VCC is insufficient, the IC enters the repeated startup state and frequently needs high voltage to charge the VCC capacitor, resulting in the loss of the starting circuit. If there is a resistor in series between the starting pin and the high voltage, the power consumption on the resistor will be large, so the power level of the starting resistor should be sufficient. The power IC does not enter burst mode or has entered burst mode, but the burst frequency is too high, the switching times are too many, and the switching loss is too large.terms of settlement:Adjust the feedback parameters to reduce the feedback speed.7. Excessive short circuit powerPhenomenon:When the output is short circuited, the input power is too large and VDS is too high.reason:When the output is short circuited, there are many repeated pulses, and the peak current of the switch is very large, resulting in too much input power. The excessive switch current stores too much energy on the leakage inductance, and the VDS is high when the switch is turned off. In case of output short circuit, there are two possible causes for switch tube to stop working:1) Triggering OCP can stop the switch action immediatelya. Trigger OCP of feedback pin;b. Switch action stops;c. VCC drops to IC off voltage;d. VCC rises again to the IC start voltage and restarts.2) Trigger internal current limitWhen this mode occurs, limit the available duty cycle and stop the switching action by reducing the VCC to the lower limit of UVLO. However, the VCC decreases for a long time, that is, the switching action lasts for a long time and the input power will be large.a. Internal current limiting is triggered and the duty cycle is limited;b. VCC drops to IC off voltage;c. Switch action stops;d. VCC rises again to the IC start voltage and restarts.8. No load and light load output bouncePhenomenon:When no-load or light load is output, turn off the input voltage, and the output (e.g. 5V) may have a voltage rebound waveform as shown in the figure below.Cause: when the input is turned off, the 5V output will drop, VCC will also drop, and the IC will stop working. However, when the PC power supply is under no-load or light load, the large capacitance voltage cannot drop rapidly, and it can still provide large current to the high-voltage starting pin, so that the IC will restart, and the 5V output will be renewed and bounce back.resolvent:When the starting pin is connected in series with a large current limiting resistor, so that the voltage of the large capacitor is still relatively high, it is not enough to provide sufficient starting current to the IC. Before connecting the start-up to the rectifier bridge, the start-up is not affected by the large capacitor voltage. When the input voltage is turned off, the starting pin voltage can drop rapidly. (some deleted above)
Can Servers Run, If Only 1 Power Supply Is Powered?
Can Servers Run, If Only 1 Power Supply Is Powered?
Depends on the UPS. The fact that the servers have redundant power supplies means that they should be fine on just one power feed.But that's assuming that the one power feed can provide the wattage that they need, and there's the rub -- dropping one UPS out will mean that the other UPS will have its load approximately doubled.A UPS device is rated for a certain load, and for the decent ones you'll have a way to check what load it's under; an LCD display on the device, or a network connection with a reporting interface. In any case, they're usually rated in both volt-amps and watts - with server equipment, the watts metric is likely to be your limiting factor (since the power factor of computer power supplies is usually right near 100%).If you have info on the load on the devices, check where they're at and what they're rated for. If not, I'd say schedule some maintenance and shut off everything that you can (ideally, more than half) before dropping to one power path. And be ready for a failure of the single UPS, even thenI have to replace a very old UPS. We've got a new one. I'm not really a sys admin, but have to act the part, as the previous one left and, well there's no one else. He had it set up with 2 UPS's, and split the power supplies from each server (5 total) so that 1 power supply went to 1 UPS, and the other power supply went to the second UPS. We've got the new UPS in place. The former sys admin said that the second UPS would be enough to power the servers, while we put in the new UPS. I just want to double check; will this work?·OTHER ANSWER:I have to replace a very old UPS. We've got a new one. I'm not really a sys admin, but have to act the part, as the previous one left and, well there's no one else. He had it set up with 2 UPS's, and split the power supplies from each server (5 total) so that 1 power supply went to 1 UPS, and the other power supply went to the second UPS. We've got the new UPS in place. The former sys admin said that the second UPS would be enough to power the servers, while we put in the new UPS. I just want to double check; will this work?
How Can the LED Driving Power Supply Pass the CE Certification? What Are the Requirements
How Can the LED Driving Power Supply Pass the CE Certification? What Are the Requirements
European and American developed countries have strict requirements for electronic products, and LED products exported to their countries are no exception. Then, what standards should be passed to export to their countries, and what important parameter requirements do these standards have? These two questions have puzzled many of us.In electronic products, there are many certification standards all over the world, among which UL, CE, TUV and China's 3C certification have great influence. In many standards, the content is nothing more than two categories of content requirements: EMC (electromagnetic interference) and FCC (Safety Specification). Different countries and different certification standards have different parameter requirements.The first is EMC, including EMS and EMI. Generally speaking, EMS mainly includes four aspects: lightning stroke test, EFD (fast pulse group test), EST (electrostatic test) and C / S (anti conduction test); EMI mainly includes three aspects: conduction test, magnetic field radiation and space radiation. Each content test has detailed compliance parameter requirements. These contents have their own certification number in many certifications, and the compliance is graded. For example, you take your product for CE certification, In the full load test of each project in EMS, there are no more than four results: 1. The product is broken --- f (failure); During the test, the machine crashes and can work normally after restarting -- level C meets the standard; During the test, the product is disturbed and the output load fluctuates -- class B meets the standard; There is no change in the output during the test - class A is the best.Secondly, it is safety regulation certification. The so-called safety regulation is the safety regulation. If you meet the safety regulation of each certification standard, you can pass the certification standard. This aspect is mainly divided into six items: 1. Temperature rise: including shell, X capacitor, coil (inductance and transformer), optical coupling, transformer skeleton, power line, PCB board, etc; 2. Withstand voltage: between input and output: there are specific voltage requirements for basic insulation voltage and functional insulation requirements (enhanced insulation requirements); 3. Leakage current: different specific requirements for different output power; 4. Input and output parameter requirements; 5. Mechanical requirements: including the distance between input lines, the distance between two points of fuse, primary and secondary of transformer, etc; 6. Overall product structure, different products have different requirements.Generally speaking, if you want to pass the certification, you should do it from the above two major items and the specific content requirements of these two major items. Only when you meet the requirements of these projects can you meet the overall requirements of various standards and allow your products to be smoothly exported to various countries in Europe and the United States.
Good UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)?
Good UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)?
Good UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)?looks ok, but you will need to find out what the power consumption is of that router. That way you will be able to see for sure if the UPS is good enough for the router, and you can calculate how long the router will keep running on the UPS after a power outage— — — — — —uninterruptible power supply (UPS) wont turn on?Indeed, check all possible fuses, from wall socket to the UPS. If a fuse did not fry, something else did, and that's usually pretty bad— — — — — —defragmenting?Not at all. BTW, are you on an UPS [Uninterruptible Power Supply]. In fact, many times, defrag is needed even when windows says it is not. [especially after a printer install, or software removal/installation.]— — — — — —What purpose does the battery serve on a battery-backed caching RAID controller if the server is on an uninterruptible power supply?There are two reasons for the battery;These are both good reasons but to be honest flash-based caches have taken over from battery backed ones recently for obvious reasons and I would recommend them first - that said if you do a lot of writing I would recommend one or the other over just a UPS— — — — — —Uninterruptible Power supply for PI 2 BThere are several considerations for choosing UPS supplies for the RPi. Surprisingly, one of those is safety. The RPi is small, portable and frequently used outdoors in areas subject to wet contact. National electrical codes (e.g., US NEC) often restrict voltages subject to wet contact. This means that using an indoor UPS to power your RPi would "work" but not be safe if the UPS was outdoors (e.g., in the rain). Another important consideration is the output voltage of the UPS. Since an RPi in the field can be some distance from a line voltage power supply, the length of the wiring between the Pi and the UPS matters significantly. Although a 5V UPS can nominally power an RPi, it will fail to do so over long thin wires outdoors because the wire resistance will cause a voltage drop below the 5V required by the Pi.For uninterruptable indoor power supply, your options are many given the ready availability of line voltage. Do be safe and consider electrical code (e. g. , putting a UPS next to the bathroom sink for your RPi smart mirror would be shockingly bad). Although UPS products are available and marketed as such, you may find the convenience of rechargeable batteries more compelling (e.g., 12V lithium battery with USB outputs) if portability is important. For uninterruptable outdoor power supply, consider using batteries (e.g. 12V LiPO with USB output) and wiring that comply with national electrical codes. Not all rechargeable batteries support simultaneous charge/discharge. Consult SE Electronics for more information. Always consider RPi power limitations— — — — — —The Best Uninterruptible Power Supply for Your Home and Small Business!Since March 2020, nearly all of South Africa's non-essential workforce started working from home. With this came challenges such as internet connectivity issues, a rise in phishing attacks, and power surges and outages. Downtime caused by power outages is frustrating for anyone, especially when deadlines are on the horizon. But, being left high and dry with no electricity can be financially crippling for a business or organisation, especially when employees are working remotely without any power generators or battery backup systems. To boot, every year, billions of rands are lost due to downtime caused by power disruptions that could have been prevented by an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). What Is An Uninterruptible Power Supply? Without going into too much detail, a UPS provides battery backup to other devices such as computers, routers and monitors, when power supply drops to unacceptable levels. A UPS contains a battery that "kicks in" when the device senses a loss of power from the primary source. If an end user is working on the computer when the UPS notifies of the power loss, they have time to save any data they are working on and exit before the secondary power source (the battery) runs out. When all power runs out, any data in your computer's random access memory (RAM) is erased. APC Power When You Need It The Most In these uncertain times, where many of us are working from home, buying the best UPS your budget can stretch to is even more important. You may find that you are plugging in a lot more power-hungry devices into your home power supply, and this could lead to power cuts or power surges. Keep your family's data and devices connected, even during a power outage, with UPS battery backup from APC by Schneider Electric.When power surges occur, a UPS intercepts the surge so that it does not damage any connected machines. Insure your computers, Wi-Fi, entertainment and smart home devices against damages from unexpected power grid disruptions, surges and even lightning. APC's battery backups help to deliver industrial-strength protection and reliability for your most important devices at home. An APC UPS Is Perfect For The Home Office Battery backup is both crucial to productivity and uptime. But those kinds of productivity boosts will only occur if remote workers remain connected. To accomplish that, you need to be able to weather the occasional utility brownout or blackout without losing valuable data or being left without internet connectivity, leaving you unable to take advantage of the tools that enable effective communication and collaboration with colleagues, partners and customers. A good UPS also provides another important element for home office workers: protection against power surges. Surges are short bursts of power that can damage sensitive equipment such as PCs, monitors and printers, because they deliver a higher level of voltage than the equipment is built to handle. And surges are not uncommon. They can result from a number of causes, including outside utility work, lightning strikes and other weather events, even from appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners as they cycle on and off. In a home office, you have two options for protecting against surges. One is a power strip with surge protection built in, while the other is a UPS that offers surge protection. If you go with the UPS option, you do not need a separate surge protector. It's likely you can find a UPS with enough outlets to power the home office gear that needs protection. Many now even come with USB ports, to power smartphones and tablets while also protecting them from surges - and enabling you to keep them powered through an outage. APC stocks smart UPSs that support remote monitoring - a nice feature if you want to keep tabs on your home office when you are away. Stay Online For Longer With An APC Uninterruptible Power Supply APC by Schneider Electric has a long history of providing battery backup and UPS solutions for all sorts of requirements, from the largest data centres to small, but important, home offices. Schneider's purpose is to empower all to make the most of our energy and resources, bridging progress and sustainability for all. At Schneider, we call this Life Is On. Energy-efficient and simple to manage, APC UPS backup systems, deliver reliable protection for your critical data and devices - no matter where they are located or how many you have: • Longevity: Lithium-ion UPS batteries offer double the lifecycle of lead-acid batteries and perform better in higher temperatures. • Simplicity: It's easy to install and maintain Lithium-ion batteries when they are more than 30% lighter than other models. • Manageability: A network card or APC SmartConnect gives you crystal-clear infrastructure visibility from any smart device. 1. What Is An Uninterruptible Power Supply? The electronic devices you rely on every day for communication, security and entertainment are at risk of damage and failure due to unexpected blackouts, voltage fluctuations or other power disruptions. A UPS provides battery backup power and protection for electronic devices, including: 2. How Does An Uninterruptible Power Supply work? There is no delay when the UPS steps in to take over when your primary power source fails. When power fails, the batteries drive the inverter, which continues to run the IT load. When power is restored, either from the utility or a generator, the rectifier delivers direct current (DC) to the inverter and simultaneously recharges the batteries. 3. What Size Uninterruptible Power Supply Do I Need? It all boils down to what you want to use a UPS device for. For computers and UPS units, watt and VA ratings can differ significantly, although VA rating is always equal to are larger than watt rating. The ratio of watts to VA is called the 'power factor' and is expressed either as a number (i.e. - 0.8) or a percentage (i.e. - 80%). When sizing a UPS for your specific requirements, the power factor matters most. Generally, your UPS should have an Output Watt Capacity 20 - 25% higher than the total power drawn by any attached equipment.You will need to consider exactly how your home is set up and where the various components that provide Internet connectivity are located. If your router is not in your office, it should have its own UPS for backup. 4. Is An Uninterruptible Power Supply Worth It? An uninterruptible power supply is worth every penny, especially if you are working from home. Not only does it supply your infrastructure with enough power to ensure enough time to save crucial files and allow for a secure shut down, but it protects against power surges which can strike at any time. 5. How Long Will An Uninterruptible Power Supply Last? Most APC batteries should last three to five years. There are many factors which affect battery life including environment and number of discharges. Lithium-ion UPS batteries offer double the lifecycle of lead-acid batteries and perform better in higher temperatures. It is good to keep in mind that a Smart-UPS gives you 2x the battery life of other solutions, and up to 50% lower total cost of ownership.
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